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Catalog Number 2000.001.0029
Object Name Print, Photographic
Description Black and white portrait (possibly in charcoal) of a man in a dark suit, white shirt and patterned tie. His dark hair is short and left parted. He has a mustache and a rather full, curly chin beard.
Portrait drawn on what appears to be a stiff linen-type fabric.
Number of images 2
Date ca 1875
Title Waugh, James, Col. (filed in oversize box 5)
Collection Nail Manufacturer - Waugh, James
Accession number 2000.001.
People Waugh, James Col
Notes 1817-1885 Industrialist

Following from the 1881 History of St. Clair County, IL pub by Brink-McDonnough, p 211: (P 193 includes an account of the Belleville Nail Mill - see below)

Parents: William and Jane, nee Crowl. The Waughs were of Scottish ancestry on the paternal side. William was born in the county of Tyronne. Couple had 10 children. James was the eldest and reared by his uncle. The family had considerable means. James emigrated to NY in 1833 and came west to St. Louis in 1836. Participated in and owned various mercantile and industrial pursuits plus the Assistant Auditor of the city of St. Louis. Elected Auditor in 1856.

In 1868 he purchased the Bogy Nail Mills of St. Louis and moved them to Belleville, IL. in 1869. He made large additions and improvements to the machinery. Waugh was president of the Belleville Nail Mill. In 1880 it was the largest manufacturer in the county -- manufacturing 120,000 kegs of nails annually and employing 200 men.

James Waugh and Emily Elsie Papin of St. Louis, MO in 1843. The Papins were among the first settlers to St. Louis. She died in 1849. Children: James C, (secretary of the nail co.) William (MD in Minnesota), Robert F (asst. manager. nail mill and keg manufacturer).

1881 History of St. Clair County p. 193 includes a detailed description of the engines, raw materials used and products manufactured and reports that the mill operated somewhat successfully until 1876 when the company was restructured (also see Advocate newspaper 7/3/1885).

1870 St. Clair County Census - N/A

1877 Belleville City Street Directory:
James, Pres Belleville Nail, res Rentchler Building, E. Main St.
James C & Bros (James C., Wm W. & Robert F) lessees of Belleville Nail Co.
Works, corner Race and 7th South
James C (Waugh & Bros), res east side Church between E. Main and 1st N.
Robert F, res Rentchler Building
William W, residence Minnesota

Following from newspaper files Belleville Public Library:

Advocate newspaper 8/16/1878 - Employees strike - demand wages be paid
twice a month rather than monthly.

Advocate newspaper 3/17/1882 - Von Schrader Distillery purchased and converted into a brad & tack factory - See Robert Forsyth Waugh

Advocate newspaper 12/1/1882 - John Maule opened coal mine to supply Belleville Nail Mill

Advocate newspaper 7/31/1885 - Waugh Nail Mill changed to Waugh Steel Mill when process for making rails was installed - see James C. Waugh

Advocate newspaper 11/4/1887 - Mill forced to suspend operations due to lack of water supply.

Advocate newspaper 8/30/1895 - Employees paid 24% of amount of wages due them - $3,500.

Advocate newspaper 12/6/1895 - Artesian well completed. Depth 565'.
Well furnishes 90,000 gallons of water per day.

Advocate newspaper 5/1/1896 - Nail Mill operators permanently close plant as 25% reduction in wages rejected by employees. Employees charge firm has sold out to National Nail Mill Assn.

Advocate newspaper 6/26/1896 - Plant resumes operation. Firm announces open shop policy; declines to deal with unions.

EXHBIT MATERIAL: Interaction between the communities of Belleville and St. Louis has always been constant. Some of the well-known families to own businesses or who took up residence in Belleville were the Griesedieck, Heinzelman, Cabanne, Waugh, Ward, Boul, Hyde, Busch, Coleman and Knispel families. etc. etc.

EXHIBIT MATERIAL: In 1869, James Waugh purchased the Bogey Nail Mill of St. Louis and moved it to Belleville. He operated the first nail mill in the State of Illinois until his death in 1885. His sons, also officers, converted the mill into a Steel Mill which operated two facilities at Belleville. In 1890 Belleville Steel was sold to Valley Steel of St. Louis.

Photo appears in "Belleville 1814-1914" published by Arcadia 11/2004, page 52.

RE Bogy Family (Waugh purchased Bogy Nail Mills of St. Louis: See "Americans of Gentle Birth" Vol 1, pae 388 A Lost Industry - Hand Made Nails